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日期:2020-03-30  发布人:  浏览量:{理论测试}




发表杂志:Social Indicators Research,2019年卷1442


The rise of merit based inequality acceptance after exposure to competition: Experimental evidence among Chinese university students


This laboratory study examines an individual’s acceptance of distributional inequality after exposure to competition and the role of competitive intensity in this relationship among young adults in mainland China. We randomly assigned participants to tournaments with different levels of prize spread and winning selectivity, thereby engendering different levels of competitive intensity. We obtained three main results. (1) Exposure to competition increases the level of inequality acceptance, and the effect of such increase tends to be great among strong performers in a tournament. (2) Exposure to competition with large prizes is positively associated with high level of inequality acceptance, whereas the relationship of winning selectivity to inequality acceptance has an inverted U shape. (3) The main source of inequality acceptance is the difference in the payoffs to strong and poor performers in a tournament. Results suggest that increasing competition intensity for economic rewards may have the unintended consequence of enhancing merit-based inequality acceptance among young Chinese university students.


Merit-based inequality acceptance , Exposure to competition, Distribution, China




发表杂志:Social Indicators Research,2019年卷1441


Does inequality cause a difference in altruism between the rich and the poor? Evidence from a laboratory experiment


Increasing research evidence indicates that economic inequality leads the rich to be less generous than the poor. While compelling, the underling mechanism of the finding remains elusive. We conduct a laboratory experiment to investigate how inequality influences people’s behavior in a sharing game. We test varying causes of inequality to see how people share payoffs with others when inequality is caused respectively by chance, competition, and choice. The experiment result shows that the rich give less than the poor only when inequality is self-chosen. Yet, different from findings in previous studies, increasing inequality does not reinforce, but instead mitigates the negative relationship of income and giving. Our study suggests that research on the consequences of inequality should be careful on discerning whether self-choice of inequality could account for the spurious effect of inequality on people’s prosocial behavior.


Inequality, Altruism, Competition, Self-selection, Experimentation




发表杂志:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 2020年卷651


Uses of artificial and composite treatments in experimental methods: Reconsidering the problem of validity and its implications for stratification research


This paper promotes the incorporation of the expanding uses of experimental methods in stratification research and beyond. Social science experiments are usually criticized for their lack of external validity, especially their limited generalizability to real-life settings. We offer a critique of this concern by reaffirming the classical insight of experimental methodology that external validity should not be a key concern and focusing on some underappreciated scientific payoffs to experimental control. We illustrate the opportunities for productive use of artificial and composite treatments in tandem to obtain three measures of inequality preference. The empirical results are based on a mobile phone survey of over 62,000 urban respondents, covering more than 330 of the largest cities in China. We show that perceived fairness is positively associated with tolerance of merit-based pay differential and, surprisingly, strict generalized egalitarian preference. Since the seemingly equivalent measures have very different predictive relationships with an individual’s perceived fairness, the results offer a cautionary tale of invalid interpretations that overlook the subtle nonequivalence among valid measurement strategies with differing degrees of realism.


Experimental validity, Artificial treatment, Composite treatment, Inequality preference, China

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